2020 Multicultural & Diversity Calendar

The 2020 multicultural and diversity calendar highlights the importance of diversity in the United States.

While there are an incredible number of relevant days celebrating individuals, religion and more, we have compiled a list of those of major importance to U.S. Multicultural communities. From month long celebrations such as Black History Month (February), Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15 -October 15), National American Indian Heritage Month (November) and Asian Pacific American Heritage Month (May) to more specific observances such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Birthday (January 21) or the Lunar New Year (February 5), the U.S. calendar of observances is incredibly diverse.

Whether planning your multicultural marketing campaigns or looking for ways to celebrate your cultural heritage, here are some key dates for 2020 with a particular focus on multicultural / diversity segments in the United States.  

  • January 20:  DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.’S BIRTHDAY The birthday of civil rights activist Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is celebrated on the third Monday in January.
  • January 25:  LUNAR NEW YEAR,  Also known as the Spring Festival  or Chinese New Year.   *5 Things to know about Chinese New Year
  • February(month):  BLACK HISTORY MONTH Celebrates Black History and African American culture
  • March 31:  CESAR CHAVEZ DAY honors the Mexican American farm worker and celebrates the contributions of labor leader and activist Cesar Chavez.
  • April: (month): ARAB AMERICAN HERITAGE MONTH celebrating Arab American heritage, culture and contributions.
  • April 23: Native American GATHERING OF NATIONS where over 500 tribes gather for three days to honor their culture
  • April 24: First Friday of RAMADAN which is the holiest month of the Muslim year
  • May: (month):   ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN HERITAGE MONTH recognizes the contributions and culture of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States.
  • May: (month): JEWISH AMERICAN HERITAGE MONTH honors the contributions of American Jews
  • May: (month): HAITIAN HERITAGE MONTH is observed in May 2019. Haitian Heritage Month is a celebration in the United States of Haitian heritage and culture. It was first celebrated in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1998.
  • May 21:  WORLD DAY FOR CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a day that recognizes cultural diversity as a source of innovation, exchange and creativity.
  • June 20:  WORLD REFUGEE DAY raises awareness about the plight of refugees .
  • August 9:  INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE WORLD’S INDIGENOUS PEOPLES celebrating the richness of indigenous cultures as well as recognizing the challenges indigenous peoples face today.
  • September 15– October 15 (month):   NATIONAL HISPANIC HERITAGE MONTH celebrates the contributions, heritage and culture of Hispanic and Latino Americans.
  • September 17:  CONSTITUTION DAY AND CITIZENSHIP DAY commemorating the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1787 and also honors all who have become U.S. citizens.
  • October (Month): GLOBAL DIVERSITY AWARENESS MONTH increasing awareness and acceptance of diverse cultures
  • October 12: INDIGENOUS PEOPLE’S DAY (Native American Day) Celebrates and honors Native American history and culture.
  • October 12: DIA DE LA RAZA, “Day of the Race”, in Spanish-speaking countries and communities.
  • October 31:  DIA DE LOS MUERTOS three day celebration to remember dead relatives and friends.
  • November (month):    NATIONAL AMERICAN INDIAN and ALASKA NATIVE HERITAGE MONTH honoring the history and culture of Native Americans and indigenous people in the United States.
  • December 25: CHRISTMAS
  • December 26– January 1, 2020:  KWANZAA  is a celebration honoring African American heritage

While these excerpts relate specifically to ethnicity / cultural background, there is an extremely comprehensive list that includes religious observances as well as public holidays put together by the Anti-Defamation League.  For brands & agencies looking to connect with multicultural audiences, Alcance Media Group can assist.


Native American Military Traditions

In articles on Military.com as well as the U.S. Army website offer interesting insight into how the “minority of minorities” is an overrepresented contributor to the military..

There seems to be a significant pride in the traditions associated with Native American nations.  One such tradition is the naming of Army Helicopters.  Names such as Apache, Black Hawk, Chinook, Kiowa, Lakota, Creek, Cayuse, Huron and Ute refer to Native American tribes and represent that warrior spirit

After 9/11 Native American service was higher than any other ethnicity (percentage-wise) and there is even a National Native American Veterans Memorial that will be formally dedicated in 2020 to honor the contributions and sacrifice of the community.

To learn more about the memorial and Native American contributions to the military visit:

While the military has specific marketing campaigns that reach out to multicultural segments such as Hispanic, and African American, I was unable to find much in the way of campaigns reaching out to Native American communities.  That being said, one big step is the recognition of the contributions of Native American Veterans will go a long way to carrying on the tradition of Native American service to the country.

Resources for Native Americans and Military Service

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group – Multicultural Marketing

https://www.reachmulticultural.com/2019/11/11/diversity_is_strength/


U.S. Military - Diversity is Strength

Who is the largest employer in the World?  Who is the largest employer in the United States?  Spoiler alert, it is the same organization.  The U.S. military / Department of Defense has been the world’s largest employer consistently.    A global organization that is as diverse as it is large continues to adapt to changing demographics.  Not only is the make up of the military changing, but this also changes the diversity of the Veteran population.

Profile of America’s Veterans: Following in the changing demographics as well as the size of the military there are some major changes.

  • Female Veteran’s share expected to double to 18%
  • Share of Hispanic Veterans to nearly double to 13%
  • The share of Black Veterans to grow from 12% – 16%
  • Share of Asian Veterans to grow from 2%-3%
  • Overall an expected 40% decrease in the total number of veterans by 2045

Diversity in Today’s Military

The makeup of the United States military just like the country is multicultural.  While the overall size may be smaller than in the past, the military is diverse.  That diversity, may not be exactly equal to the population, but has certainly continued to become more representative.  Whether, tradition, recruiting, or marketing, the military has taken notice.

The U.S. military actively markets to many multicultural communities, especially the Hispanic community.  Hispanic participation in the military has continued to grow along with population trends.  African American participation which has historically been very strong has been more challenging since the Gulf War.  While Hispanic and African American participation is expected to continue being a large portion of the military.  But what about some other multicultural groups such as, Arab, Asian or Native American?

Example of Hispanic (Spanish) focused Marketing Campaign

Other Multicultural Segments

While there is less information available regarding these groups, many represent an interesting heritage that associates them with the military.  While none of these groups may represent a major percentage, there is an interesting story to all.  From the diversity within the Asian community, to military traditions associated with the Native American community to the challenges or finding information regarding Arab-American participations, there are stories in each.  Here are some quick links to resources.

Multicultural Leadership

As one of the largest organizations in the world, the U.S. Military is not only responsible for safety, security and innovations, but offers growth opportunities to men and women across all demographic categories.  Offering education assistance and job opportunities to those who choose to join military service, the military will continue to be one of the largest and most diverse global entities.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group – Multicultural Marketing

Pew Research: The Changing Profile of the U.S. Military

U.S. Military Service of Asians and Pacific Islanders:

Arab-Americans in the United States Military:

Native American Participation in the United States Military:

https://www.reachmulticultural.com/2019/11/11/native-american-military-traditions/


Multicultural Healthcare

Multicultural Healthcare Initiatives - Making a difference

Healthcare has been a major issue for governments, politicians, voters, and the population overall. A difficult issue in general, yet further complicated by challenges related to the healthcare needs of very diverse multicultural communities.

Avoiding issues of the government’s role in healthcare and the always challenging healthcare debate, we’ll just have a glimpse into healthcare marketing for diverse communities in key states and the relation to diverse segments that are prevalent in their communities.

Michigan – Arab American

Michigan Department of Health and Human Services has outreach programs for numerous multicultural communities throughout the state.  As the state with the largest Arab American populations (….) they are one of the more educated organizations  and have even published studies like this one: Health Status of Arab Adults in Michigan

Here is a great example of MDHSS and an initiative for the Arab American community in relation to Diabetes.
MDHHS – Arab American Diabetes Outreach (English & Arabic)

 

California – Asian | Asian American:

California is extremely diverse and while is at the top in terms of population for most multicultural segments, it is the highest population and percentage for the Asian segment.  This group in itself is diverse in culture, language, and many other areas so presents numerous challenges.

The California Department of Health created Health Equity programs. The Asian American initiative  for example works with community organizations and adapts information for the Hmong, Vietnamese, and Chines communities.   Throughout California there are also community organizations such as the San Francisco based Chinese Community Health Plan (CCHP)  which offers health plans throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.

Texas – U.S. Hispanic | Latino: Texas

By percentage, Texas is second in terms of population numbers (behind California) and in percentage of the population (trailing New Mexico) and has been at the forefront of outreach to this community.

Among the challenges for the Texas Department of State Health Services are a high rate of uninsured (31% of Texas Latinos are uninsured according to Pew Hispanic LINK . With a high percentage of Hispanics speaking Spanish in the home, one key consideration is to have a complete set of Spanish resources such as the Texas Department of State Health Services website  which can also support community efforts.

Arizona – Native American | Navajo:

Outreach to Native American communities is often overlooked in many states, but in Arizona this is a key segment for a variety of issues. In population size Arizona has the largest Native American population (by percentage Alaska is top) so it is a population with a significant impact on the state.

Arizona has a specific health insurance outreach for Native American communities called the American Indian Health Program (AIHP) health insurance plan options for this community.  In fact, the Arizona health services even offers information in Navajo.

Georgia – African American | Black:

As one of the states with the highest concentration as well as population for African Americans Georgia has put together numerous outreach programs to the community. Yet despite Atlanta being one of the cities with major government health organizations (ex. Center for Disease Control CDC, American Cancer Society, and more) there continue to be major issues with mortality and insurance coverage among the African American Community.  A recent NPR article looks into some of the challenges in Atlanta.

Whether on a national, state, or community level, many public as well as private organizations understand the need to reach out to diverse multicultural communities, yet resources always present a challenge. For states where a segment represents a large percentage, the needs for specific marketing / outreach efforts for communities are clear, but for others deciding on which segment to focus efforts on will be much more challenging.

On the positive side, there are now more resources available that can be adapted or offer insight as to how to communicate with these communities.

For additional information for advertisers looking to reach multicultural communities, Alcance Media Group’s multicultural health advertising team can assist.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group – Multicultural Marketing

The challenges of health providers to reach U.S. Hispanic

Health Status of Arab Adults in Michigan

Chinese Community Health Plan (CCHP)

The Asian American initiative

Texas Department of State Health Services website

American Indian Health Program (AIHP)


Spanish OTT Connected TV

Reaching Multicultural Audiences through Connected Devices OTT & Connected TV

Multicultural Audiences have been among the strongest audiences for entertainment as well as utilization of digital devices for those entertainment needs.

But is the transition to connected devices and over the top devices (OTT) for multicultural audiences happening as fast, and how will that impact multicultural marketing?

According to a recent Streaming Media: Reaching Multicultural Audiences in a Fragmented Ecosystem there are some interesting insights regarding multicultural audiences and the penetration of connected devices.

  • While average TV viewers spend 43 percent of time with live TV and 35 percent with steaming services with Hispanics, Blacks and Asians splitting 40% on live TV, 40% on streaming, and the remainder on other devices.
  • The article contends that Latinos and Asians show fewer signs of cord cutting than Non-Hispanic and Black audiences due to the importance of in-language and cultural specific packages.

Content in-language and culturally relevant is an opportunity for content providers and advertisers alike.

Of course there are increasing data/targeting options for advertisers to reach these multicultural segments, however by creating culturally relevant advertising and combining it with culturally relevant content in any language will make an impact.  Of course sporting events such as soccer and basketball will have a major streaming viewership, there are more entertainment options being creative for everyone. While Hispanic and Asian audiences especially in younger audiences are English proficient, an interesting mention in the article was that almost 9 in 10 bilingual Hispanics watch some Spanish language television.  And,

About half of Latinos and Asians, and two in three Black viewers, say it’s important to have access to content created for them.

Following are a few examples for African American and Hispanic options

Example of African American focused channel: Kweli TV

Example of how to ad Sling TV Spanish language options  (in Spanish)

While the cord cutting numbers increase across the TV ecosystem, and there continue to be more providers of content, targeting and advertising services, there is a major opportunity for marketers to make an impact with multicultural audiences through streaming devices (OTT) and connected TV.  For reaching Hispanics, Asians and African American audiences, there may be challenges to working with one provider (ex. Roku) as reach may still pose challenges while more content becomes available.  Working with digital, multicultural specific networks or platforms such as Alcance Media Group will facilitate reaching these multicultural audiences across multiple platforms instead of reaching out individually to each and is a solution to dealing with scale, minimums, and the challenges of getting in touch with the individual providers.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group: Multicultural OTT

Streaming Media: Reaching Multicultural Audiences in a Fragmented Media Ecosystem:

Multicultural Sports Fans


Womens World Cup France 2019

Women's World Cup - Not Only for Women

The Women’s World Cup 2019 in France, while played by women, is watched by a diverse audience.

Soccer is a global game and has a broad appeal across gender, ethnicity, income, education and beyond.  While nothing will trump the appeal of the World Cup, the Women’s World Cup continues to increase in popularity and drives opportunities for viewers, marketers as well as expanded access to sporting opportunities for women.

One of the best sources to evaluate interest in the game comes from marketing studies as sponsorship and advertising are also a key part of the game.  According to a recent MediaPost article there are some key findings that demonstrate the level of interest and viewership among groups.

FIFA’s viewership goal:  Exceed 1 billion viewers

U.S. Interest:

  • 3 of 10 U.S. adults have some interest in watching, and men are significantly more likely than women to watch.
  • Millenials (36%) and Hispanics (41%) are somwhat or very interested in watching.
  • Asians (33%), African Americans (22%) and non-Hispanic Whites (25%) were also mentioned.

Whether watching on TV (majority) or streaming online through connected devices (OTT/CTV) the tournament is already drawing the attention of viewers in the U.S.  Of course with all sports, popularity of the tournament will also follow the results that come.  If the U.S. and France are in the Final, then of course media attention and viewership in those countries will be high.  However should they falter, you can bet that interest will decline.  The same goes for any team, especially the favorites.

Odds to Win the 2019 Women’s World Cup

Women’s World Cup 2019 plus betting odds to win

 

As for the chances of each team winning the World Cup, look no further than Las Vegas for the real experts (Sports Gambling) to see your team’s potential.

Women’s Opportunities and Challenges in Sports.

Regardless of the outcome, one key benefit to the increasing interest in the Women’s World Cup are the benefits in offering opportunities for women on a global level.  Adding to media attention in the run up to the tournament have been increased discussions on pay, access, and harassment.   While the battles of the U.S. team have been well documented, in other countries there are changes on the way.  For example in Colombia, Argentina and other parts of Latin America there is an increased focus on the opportunities and challenges for women and progress is being made.

The ski industry faces numerous challenges,  however there is a clear replacement to participation numbers in U.S. Hispanic, African American, and Asian American populations.  Does the industry recognize this?  While it does seem that there is an overall understanding among industry executives, actions are far less evident and that is what will need to change.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group: Multicultural Marketing

Media Post 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup: How Marketers Can Get In the Game:

As Women’s World Cup approaches, Latin American women soccer players seek change

Copa America: When Where and How


African American Skiers - National Brotherhood of Skiers

As we look at multicultural participation in winter sports and how the ski industry can benefit from increased participation from multicultural skiers, for this article we focus on African American / Black Skiers.  This audience represents 14.5% of the U.S. population, yet do not come close to representing that percentage on the ski slopes.

The ski industry needs multicultural segment participation: Specifically three key audiences: U.S. Hispanics, African Americans and Asian Americans.

With the first gathering in 1973 bringing together over 350 African American skiers in Aspen Colorado the National Brotherhood of Skiers has helped bring the African American community to the slopes.  With the mission to “identify, develop and support athletes of color who will WIN international and Olympic winter sports competition representing the Unites States and to increase participation in winter sports.” the organization now connects over 60 ski clubs, from Florida to California.  If you want to see the impact in action, then visit Steamboat between March 2-9 , 2019 during the Black Ski Summit.

From the Winter Olympics (traditionally dominated by wealthy nordic nations) to the U.S. Ski industry which has traditionally been a sport dominated by wealthy boomers, the faces of Winter Sports are changing.  From Kenya’s first ever Winter Olympian, to a much more diverse Team USA (Erin Jackson/African American speed skater & Chloe Kim/Asian American)  winter sports are slowly adjusting to the changing demographics of the country.

For a little history check out the article: 11 Black Olympians who have made history

Groups such as National Brotherhood of Skiers, Gateway Mountain Center and others make a major impact and should be supported by the industry.  A great example of the impact of these organizations is the story of a Tahoe Guide and Squaw Valley Ski Patroller John Littleton.

John Littleton – Tahoe Guide and Squaw Valley Ski Patrol

Multicultural participation is key to the success of the ski industry.

Organizations such as NBS and their National Youth Program open doors to this fantastic sport.  There are many groups throughout the country that do great work to encourage participation and offer opportunities for more diversity.  Not only ethnicity, but also offering opportunities for younger generations that did not grow up with the sports and that may not have the same affluent financial background of many ski families.

From a 2017 Powder magazine article here is a snapshot of the situation:  For 40 years, skiing has failed to market itself beyond a single narrow (and diminishing) demographic. In 1974, resorts had 53 million skier visits; 2016 had 53.9 million. (In the same period, the total U.S. population swelled by another 100 million people. The percentage of Americans skiing has decreased from 25 to 17.) Similarly, the socioeconomic and racial makeup of the sport remains steady. In 1976, 70 percent of skiers made more money than the average American; today’s figure is 72 percent. And the snow sports world has always skewed whiter than the greater U.S. In 2014, seven percent of skiers were African-American and 13 percent were Hispanic, compared to 12 and 17 percent nationwide.

Now to hear from the National Brotherhood National Youth program with a good message: Let’s face it – this sport is hard to get in to, and far too easy to let go… It takes a village. We all play a part.  While financial support is critical, sometimes a friendly, familiar face, kind words of encouragement, a network of support for families traveling to an unfamiliar place is enough to keep the dream alive – to make the load more bearable in that moment.  We can ALL lend something to that experience, to enrich the life of a young person.

The ski industry faces numerous challenges,  however there is a clear replacement to participation numbers by expanding diversity and of course increasing youth participation.  The challenge of course is that it is rarely as simple as setting up a marketing campaign towards a particular group, however working with advocacy groups and working to increase inclusion will bring benefits.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group: Multicultural Marketing

National Brotherhood of Skiers

Gateway Mountain Center


Will multicultural skiers save the ski industry?

The ski industry needs multicultural segment participation: Specifically three key audiences: U.S. Hispanics, African Americans and Asian Americans.

U.S. Demographics are rapidly changing and this has a major effect in many areas.  The ski industry is one of those industries that faces challenges on many fronts.  From an aging boomer generation which has been a core participant, to climate change which requires resorts to adapt.

Since the late 1970’s through today, skier numbers in the U.S. has remained relatively flat.  With the aging baby boomer population which is a key part of that number, the challenge of how to replace those skiers is at the forefront.  As populations change, especially in California and Colorado cities that feed many winter destinations, there are some efforts to reach out to different segments of the population.  But is it enough?  and will these populations be receptive?

Ethnic markets near ski areas
Diverse audiences in San Francisco, Denver, Los Angeles, New York, and others are key to the success for winter destinations.

Does the Ski Industry need multicultural skiers?  And more importantly, do they realize it?

From an article in Aspen Sojourner. https://www.aspensojo.com/articles/2018/2/15/let-the-winter-games-begin related to the ski industry: Karl Kapuscinski, owner of Mountain High ski area, within a three-hour drive of Los Angeles, concurs. The Southern California demographic he sees now can deliver growth for destination ski resorts for years to come. He describes a new ethnic mix at Mountain High: about 60 percent from minority groups, especially Latino and Asian. These customers further reflect Southern California’s population in that they’re educated, have disposable income, and favor active, outdoor lifestyles. Kapuscinski also oversees Stevens Pass near Seattle, where he sees similar demographics.

 

While from experience, in the Tahoe area the importance of Hispanic / Asian populations is evident.  From the supermarket to the ski slopes, the influence of nearby multicultural audiences cannot be understated. Yet, what is way less evident is a consistent marketing effort to embrace the changing demographic.

Visit Denver offers multilingual options for multicultural audiences.

While Visit Denver has multiple language options as well as efforts to reach out to the Hispanic community, the ski industry seems to be well behind. A quick look at the two major ski companies offering the two largest season pass groupings of ski resorts.  The Epic pass page is only in English and the IKON pass is in English & French.  Even with resorts in Latin America, Japan and other countries having only French as the other language is just confusing.

French, really? Great language, but not sure the French population growth is at the same level as Hispanic and Asian Americans.

The ski industry faces numerous challenges,  however there is a clear replacement to participation numbers in U.S. Hispanic, African American, and Asian American populations.  Does the industry recognize this?  While it does seem that there is an overall understanding among industry executives, actions are far less evident and that is what will need to change.

Additional Resources:

Alcance Media Group: Multicultural Marketing

U.S. Census Bureau:

Aspen Sojourner Article:

Top Travel Destinations for Latin Americans in the U.S. 


Black History Month

The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the generations of African Americans who struggled with adversity to achieve full citizenship in American society.

As a Harvard-trained historian, Carter G. Woodson, like W. E. B. Du Bois before him, believed that truth could not be denied and that reason would prevail over prejudice. His hopes to raise awareness of African American’s contributions to civilization was realized when he and the organization he founded, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH), conceived and announced Negro History Week in 1925. The event was first celebrated during a week in February 1926 that encompassed the birthdays of both Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. The response was overwhelming: Black history clubs sprang up; teachers demanded materials to instruct their pupils; and progressive whites, not simply white scholars and philanthropists, stepped forward to endorse the effort.

By the time of Woodson’s death in 1950, Negro History Week had become a central part of African American life and substantial progress had been made in bringing more Americans to appreciate the celebration. At mid–century, mayors of cities nationwide issued proclamations noting Negro History Week. The Black Awakening of the 1960s dramatically expanded the consciousness of African Americans about the importance of black history, and the Civil Rights movement focused Americans of all color on the subject of the contributions of African Americans to our history and culture.

The celebration was expanded to a month in 1976, the nation’s bicentennial. President Gerald R. Ford urged Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history.” That year, fifty years after the first celebration, the association held the first African American History Month. By this time, the entire nation had come to recognize the importance of Black history in the drama of the American story. Since then each American president has issued African American History Month proclamations. And the association—now the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH)—continues to promote the study of Black history all year.

(Excerpt from an essay by Daryl Michael Scott, Howard University, for the Association for the Study of African American Life and History)


Madam C.J. Walker

Almost in every place around the world, it is possible to find entrepreneurs. But also, across the communities and ethnics. Today we would like to reserve an special place to Madam C.J. Walker (Source: National Woman’s History Museum).

Entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist, Madam C.J. Walker rose from poverty in the South to become one of the wealthiest African American women of her time. She used her position to advocate for the advancement of black Americans and for an end to lynching.

Seeking a way out of poverty, in 1889, Walker moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where her four brothers were barbers. There, she worked as a laundress and cook. She joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church, where she met leading black men and women, whose education and success likewise inspired her. In 1894, she married John Davis, but the marriage was troubled, and the couple later divorced.

Struggling financially, facing hair loss, and feeling the strain of years of physical labor, Walker’s life took a dramatic turn in 1904. That year, she not only began using African American businesswoman Annie Turbo Malone’s “The Great Wonderful Hair Grower,” but she also joined Malone’s team of black women sales agents. A year later, Walker moved to Denver, Colorado, where she married ad-man Charles Joseph Walker, renamed herself “Madam C.J. Walker,” and with $1.25, launched her own line of hair products and straighteners for African American women, “Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower.”

Source: convene.com

Walker’s business grew rapidly, with sales exceeding $500,000 in the final year of her life. Her total worth topped $1 million dollars, and included a mansion in Irvington, New York dubbed “Villa Lewaro;” and properties in Harlem, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis.

As her wealth increased, so did her philanthropic and political outreach. Walker contributed to the YMCA, covered tuition for six African American students at Tuskegee Institute, and became active in the anti-lynching movement, donating $5,000 to the NAACP’s efforts. Just prior to dying of kidney failure, Walker revised her will, bequeathing two-thirds of future net profits to charity, as well as thousands of dollars to various individuals and schools.

Our congrats to her.